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Yellowstone National Park
Category: National Parks

Yellowstone National Park is a national park and a World Heritage Site in the states of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming , USA. Yellowstone was established on 1 March 1872 , making it the world's oldest national park . It covers 8983 km ² , mostly in Wyoming's northwestern region .

The main natural attractions of the park 's geysers , hot springs and other geothermal features. The park is home to brown bears, wolves , bison and deer. It is the core of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem , one of the world's largest remaining temperate ecosystems.

Long before humans came to Yellowstone , there was a massive volcanic eruption that led to the massive amounts of ash covered the western United States , much of the Midwest , northern Mexico and some of the Pacific coast. The eruption was several times larger than the Mount St. Helens in the 1980 and resulted in a massive volcanic crater which is 70 km long and 30 km wide , located over a huge magma chamber ( see Yellowstone volcano) . Yellowstone has had three major eruptions in the past 2.2 million years , the last of these for 640 000 years ago. These eruptions are the largest on Earth in this time frame , and led to drastic climate changes.

The park is named for the yellow rocks seen in Yellowstone's Grand Canyon - a deep gash in Yellowstone Plateau , which was formed by floods during previous ice ages and from river erosion from the Yellowstone River .

The park's human history dates back to 12,000 years ago. It was known to the natives as " Mitzi - a- Dazi ," which means " The yellow stones river " because of the iron -containing yellow rocks in Yellowstone's Grand Canyon ( many believe falsely that the yellow color comes from sulfur ) .

The Indians who lived in the Yellowstone area also utilized the large quantities of obsidian in the park to make tools and weapons. Indeed, arrowheads made of obsidian from Yellowstone been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley, indicating that obsidian trade between Yellowstone Indians and tribes farther east existed.

Mountain man Jim Bridger in 1857 came back from an expedition in the park area and reported the boiling springs, spouting water, a mountain of glass and yellow rock. This was ignored by most, because Bridger was known to have good imagination . His stories still interested explorer and geologist Ferdinand Hayden Vande Veer who in 1859 began a two-year investigation of the upper Missouri River region with WF Raynolds from the U. S. Army . They reached the edge of Yellowstone, but could not proceed due to the massive snowfall. The following civil war stopped all attempts to explore the area , and it was 11 years before Hayden could again go to Yellowstone .

Later hosted people from Montana Washburn - Langford - Doane Expedition , led by the surveyor -general Henry Washburn . With the group was Nathaniel P. Langford , later known as the " National Park " Langford , and militærdetasjement commanded by Lt. Gustavus Doane . The expedition spent a month in the area in 1870 , and collected samples and gave names to places of interest .

In 1871, Hayden led a second major expedition , now government supported the Yellowstone region. He wrote a composite report , which included large photographs made by William Henry Jackson and paintings by Thomas Moran . This report convinced Congress to pull the region from public auction . 1 March 1872 , signed President Ulysses S. Grant a document that created Yellowstone National Park.

Langford worked since five years without payment as the first director , and was followed by several other managers ( who work with minimum wages) . Langford was followed by Philetus Norris, who volunteered for the position, having traveled through Yellowstone and the park experienced problems themselves. Under his rule began last Congress to provide salaries for the director, and money to manage the park . He used this money to expand the availability and further explore the park . Norris employees also Harry Yount ( called " Rocky Mountain Harry ") to stop poaching and vandalism in the park . Today Yount considered as the very first parkvokteren .

In the summer of 1988 was very dry , and a series of forest fires started by lightning began to ravage . Thousands of firefighters were deployed to rescue the man-made structures from the flames , but - controversial enough - were few resources put into stopping forest fires correctly. Ecologists argued this by saying that the fires are part of the Yellowstone ecosystem , and that if you stop forest fires , the result was a sick and again overgrown forest . Relatively few large animals in the park were killed by fires and for fires new life has begun to sprout . The fires also made the interesting archaeological and geological sites that were previously unknown were discovered and cataloged by Scientific men. National Park Service now tend to light the smaller controlled fires to prevent new accumulations of combustible material in 1988.

The North American continent boundary runs diagonally through the southwestern part of the park . The distinction is a topographic line is the boundary between where the water drains to the Pacific where it drains into the Atlantic ( one third of the park drains to the Pacific ) .

For example, the Yellowstone River and Snake River headwaters near each other , but they run in opposite directions from the continent divide - the Snake River on the west, Yellowstone River on the east . The result is that the Snake River ends up in the Pacific, while the Yellowstone River runs into the Atlantic Ocean (via the Gulf of Mexico ) .

The park is located on a high plateau which on average is 2400 m. , And nearly surrounded by mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains , with altitudes of 3,000 to 4,300 m. These mountain ranges are Gallatin Range ( in the northwest) , Beartooth Mountains ( to the north ) , Absaroka Mountains ( to the east ) , Wind River Range ( in the southeast ) , Teton Mountains ( in the south, see Grand Teton National Park ) and the Madison Range ( in the west) .

Just outside the parens southwestern boundary is Island Park Caldera, which is a plateau surrounded by low hills . Past this is southern Idaho's Snake River Plain, which is covered by flood basalt nor to the southwest (see Craters of the Moon National Monument ) .

Main Point Of Interest Or at Yellowstone Park is the Yellowstone caldera , a very large caldera almost completely covered by volcanic debris, and measures 50 × 60 km. Inside this caldera lies most of Yellowstone Lake, the largest high-altitude lake in North America.

South of the park , just north of Lake Yellowstone, Upper Geyser Basin is located , and Old Faithful and the Old Faithful Inn . Old Faithful is the park's most famous geyser, and the largest turistatraksjonen . Geyser can squirt over 100 ft . It is not very loud, but it is special , it spurts every 72 mine.

Old Faithful Inn is one of the world's most historic buildings . The original building is made of 100 % wood, but stone fireplace (which has eight firing locations !) Today, besides lodging, also souvenir shop , restaurant , bathroom and store in the house . It is also built on a newer, more modern part , but this is not so fun to live in !

The climate of Yellowstone is greatly influenced by altitude , where the lower-lying areas are generally warmer year round . During the summer months from June to early September is the highest day temperature usually around 20-25 ° C , while night temperatures can go below freezing , especially in høyereliggene areas. In summer it is often part thunderstorms in the afternoons . Spring and autumn temperatures vary often in the range 0-20 ° C , with cold nights usually between -5 and -20 ° C. Winter in Yellowstone is very cold , with the highest temperature usually between -20 and -5 ° C and the night temperature below -20 ° C.

Rainfall amounts in Yellowstone is highly variable , and can be between 380 mm / year near Mammoth Hot Springs and 2000 mm / year in the southwestern part of the park . The precipitation may come as snow in every month of the year , with average amounts varying from 380 cm / year around Yellowstone Lake to about twice as much in the higher elevations.

It is rare tornadoes in Yellowstone, but 21 July 1987 sent the strongest tornado ever recorded in Wyoming in the Teton Wilderness of Bridger - Teton National Forest and hit Yellowstone National Park. The tornado was classified as an F4 , with wind speeds estimated at between 333 and 418 km / h The tornado caused extensive damage in an area that was 1.6 to 3.2 km wide and 38 km long, and blew down the 61 km ² of adult pine forest .

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