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Syria and the Arab Republic of Syria is an Arab state in the Middle East. It is bordered on the north by Turkey, on the east by Iraq, in the south of Jordan and the West to Lebanon, Israel and the Mediterranean Sea. The Syrian Golan Heights occupied by Israel since the Six Day War in 1967. Capital and largest city is Damascus, other significant cities, Aleppo and Homs.

Syria is a young nation, but an old country. Several very old cities have been revealed by excavations, including Ugarit (6th millennium BC) and Mari (4th millennium BC). In turn, the country has since antiquity been obsessed Aramean, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs, and from the 1500s the Turks.

15th March 2011 broke out first demonstrations of a dozen people in the capital Damascus, followed by a hundred protesters and tens of thousands of supporters on Facebook the next day.
After Friday prayers on 18 March 2012 demonstrations broke out with several thousand protesters in several of Syria's largest cities, Damascus, Daraa, Homs, Baniyas, Qamishli and Deir ez-Zor. Demonstrations have continued since. After several months of largely peaceful protests, the situation has developed into an armed conflict can be characterized as a civil war. More than 19 000 people have been killed as of July 2012.

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